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Common Conditions | Specialty Medications
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the body's immune system. If HIV is not treated, it can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Learning the basics about HIV can keep you healthy and prevent HIV transmission.
HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. You can get HIV from contact with infected blood, semen, or vaginal fluids. Most people get the virus by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV. Another common way of getting it is by sharing drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV.
Primary infection (Acute HIV)
Some people infected by HIV develop a flu-like illness within two to four weeks after the virus enters the body. This illness, known as primary (acute) HIV infection, may last for a few weeks. Possible signs and symptoms include:
- Muscle aches and joint pain
- Sore throat and painful mouth sores
- Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck
- Weight loss
- Night sweats
These symptoms can be so mild that you might not even notice them. However, the amount of virus in your bloodstream (viral load) is quite high at this time. As a result, the infection spreads more easily during primary infection than during the next stage.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread.
When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process breaks down, and abnormal or damaged cells grow and multiply when they shouldn't. These cells may form tumors, which are lumps of tissue. Tumors can be cancerous or not cancerous (benign).
Some general signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific to, cancer, include:
- Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
- Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
- Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won't heal, or changes to existing moles
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits
- Persistent cough or trouble breathing
- Difficulty swallowing
- Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
- Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
- Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
- Unexplained bleeding or bruising
The cardiovascular, or circulatory, system supplies the body with blood. It consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. CVD is now the most common cause of death worldwide. However, there are many ways to reduce the risk of developing these conditions.
- Chest tightness or pressure.
- Difficulty catching your breath.
- Dizziness or fainting.
- Fluid build up.
- Heart palpitations (heart pounding or racing).
- Pain or numbness in your legs or arms.
- Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting.
Injectables are used to relax facial wrinkles and folds (such as “smile lines”), contour the body (such as reducing the appearance of a “double chin”) and improve the signs of facial fat loss by creating structure, framework and volume to the face and lips.
There are three main types of injectables.
The most common one is Botox, but other options include Xeomin, Dysport, and Jeuveau.
Injectable fillers are most commonly used for the face, but unbeknownst to most, they are often administered in other parts of the body as well. Because they are non-invasive, dermal fillers have become a popular choice when looking to restore lost volume, smooth out fine lines, or diminish wrinkles
Musculoskeletal pain is when pain affects the muscles, bones, tendons, joints, and ligaments. Musculoskeletal pain can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (long-lasting).
Common causes of musculoskeletal pain include:
- Overuse injuries
- Bone fractures
- Joint dislocation
- Direct blows to muscles, bones, or joints
- Poor posture
Common musculoskeletal pain symptoms include:
- Aching and stiffness
- Muscle twitches
- Burning sensations in the muscles
- Sleep disturbances
- Pain that worsens with movement
Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. When someone has diabetes, the body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make.
There are different causes for different types of diabetes:
Type 1: Doctors don’t know exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. Genes may play a role in some people. For whatever reason, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
Type 2: This is a result of a combination of genetics and lifestyle. Being overweight or obese increases the risk too. Carrying extra weight makes cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.
General diabetes symptoms include:
- Blurry vision
- Extreme fatigue
- Weight loss
- Sores that don’t heal
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach. Insulin allows your body to use glucose for energy. Glucose is a type of sugar found in many carbohydrates.
Injections of insulin can help manage both types of diabetes. The injected insulin acts as a replacement for, or a supplement to, your body’s natural insulin.
People living with type 1 diabetes can’t make insulin, so they must inject insulin to control their blood glucose levels.
Many people living with type 2 diabetes can manage their blood glucose levels with lifestyle changes and oral medication. However, if these treatments don’t help control glucose levels, people living with type 2 diabetes may also need supplemental insulin.
Typically, a blood glucose reading of less than 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is considered too low for almost anyone using insulin, but you should talk with your doctor about what is too low for you.
THROMBOSIS & EMBOLISM
Thrombosis occurs when a thrombus, or blood clot, develops in a blood vessel and reduces the flow of blood through the vessel. Embolism occurs when a piece of a blood clot, foreign object, or other bodily substance becomes stuck in a blood vessel and largely obstructs the flow of blood..
This is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Once a clot has formed in the deep veins of the leg, there is a potential for part of the clot to break off and travel through the blood to another area of the body, often the lung. DVT is the most common cause of a pulmonary embolism.
DVT signs and symptoms can include:
- Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there's swelling in both legs.
- Pain in your leg. The pain often starts in your calf and can feel like cramping or soreness.
- Red or discoloured skin on the leg.
- A feeling of warmth in the affected leg.
- Deep vein thrombosis can occur without noticeable symptoms.
Compounded medications are critical to patients who need treatment that is not readily available through commercially available prescription drugs. A compounding pharmacy is responsible for formulating customized medications that meet the unique needs of a patient.
The types of medications that can be compounded are endless. But you may be interested to learn that there are also different ways that medications can be delivered through compounding. Some of the different types of delivery options include:
The primary reason for compounding is to avoid patient non-compliance, which means the patient is either unable or unwilling to use the medication as directed. Many patients are allergic to preservatives or dyes, or require a dosage that is different from the standard drug strengths.